what classifies a spell as stat-modifying / healing (vulpes question)?

my favourite foxes are back again to not let enemies play, and once again I wonder:

  1. does stat modifying strictly means ‘bonus to str/int/speed etc.’? does it include spells like equality and humility? does health qualify as a stat? it’s difficult to guess which spells belong to this class

  2. does healing strictly mean ‘replenish hp’? does it include barrier, or ressurection, or anything else? as decaying vulpes casts healing at start of battle, is there any point to this outside of life mage overhealing / heal as damage?